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1.Said, Culture and Imperialism, 175.

2. , , , . 4 (Paris: YMCA Press, 1979). , .

3.Abraham Rothberg, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: The Major Novels (Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press, 1971).

4. , 184-85.

5.Edward A. Allworth, The Modern Uzbeks: From the Fourteenth Century to the Present (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1990), 200201; Seton-Watson, 442 .

6.M. , (: , 1957), 89; H. B. Paksoy, Muslims in the Russian Empire: Response to Conquest, Studies in Comparative Communism 19, nos. 34 (Autumn / Winter 1986).

7.Seton-Watson, 443-44; Richard A. Pierce, Russian Central Asia 18671917: A Study in Colonial Rule (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1960); Robert J. Kaiser, Ethnic Demography and Interstate Relations in Central Asia, in Roman Szporluk, ed., National Identity and Ethnicity in Russia and the New States of Eurasia (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994), 230-65.

8.M. , 22.

9.H. . , , edited by G. P. Struve and V. Filippov (Washington, DC: V. Kamkin, 1962-68).

10.E. M. Thompson, N. S. Gumilev and the Russian Ideology, Nikolai Gumilev, 18861986, edited by Sheelagh Graham (Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Slavic Specialties, 1987).

11., , . 6 (: , 1964), 641. . John Fennell, The Crisis of Medieval Russia, 12001304 (London and New York: Longman, 1983), 101-21.

12.John Garrard, Corresponding Heroines in don Juan and Evgenii Onegin, Slavonic and East Europian Review, 73, no. 3 (1995), 428-48.

13.Allworth, 213 .

14. , 213.

15. , 216.

16.Associated Press, 10 October 1995.

17.. . Paksoy, Introduction in Central Asia Reader: The Rediscovery of History (Armonk, NY and London: M. E. Sharpe, 1994), ix. , , 1997 p. Rimzil Valiev et al, Tatarstan faces challenges, Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, 31 December 1997.

18.. M. , , . 3. (Paris: YMCA Press, n. d.), 602.

19.Seton-Watson, 442.

20. ., , , 5 ( 1989), 182241; CIA World Factbook 1993 (Washington, DC, 1994).

21.M. , 27.

22.The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union, edited by Archie Brown et. al. (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1982), 136.

23.Paksoy, Central Asia Reader, ix.

24.Ryszard Kapuscinski, Imperium,256257; , Irium (New York: Knopf, 1993).

25.Kapuscinski, 225.

26.Allworth, 239-40.

27.Said (1994), 179.

28.. ., , 19171985, 5 . (: , 1987) . X. ., , 2 . (: , 1987)

29.Helene Carrere-dEncausse, Decline of an Empire: The Soviet Socialist Republics in Revolt (1978); , : M. Sokolinski . A. La Farge (New York: Newsweek Books 1979), 185.

30.Allworth, 230.

31. , 175.

32. , 299.

33. , (: , 1992).

34.Mikhail S. Bernstam, The Demography of Soviet Ethnic Groups in World Perspective, in Robert Conquest, ed. The Last Empire: Nationality and the Soviet Union (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1986), 322.

35., , ! ? , !.. , , . , , . , , 139, 140, 141.

36., ? , 296.

37.Max Ognev, Sorry State of Human Rights in Russia, Agence France-Presse, 30 November 1998; Paul Goble, North Caucasus: The Return of a Dangerous Concept, Radio Free Europe /Radio Liberty, 6 November 1998.

38., 99-100.

39.Said (1978), 94.

40. ? , 88.

41.Carrere-dEncausse, 135.

42. , , , , 29 (4408) ( 1995.), 6667.

43.Bernstam 346-49; Carrere-dEncausse, 86.

44. , 530, 531.

45. . , (, , 128).

46. , ? , 64.

47. , , , 272.

48.Allworth, 317.

49. , 318.

50., , 125126; The Cancer Ward, : Rebecca Frank (New York: Dell, 1968), 160161. YMCA (19781979): . 138139. , .

51.Adam Mickiewicz, Ustep (1832).

52.Said (1993), xviii.

53. ?

54. -, ? , 29 (4408) ( 1995.), 3638.

55.Sans Afrique, il ne aura pas lhistoire de France au XXIe siecle. Francois Mitterand, Presence francaise et abandon (1957), Said Culture and Imperialism, 178.


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