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1.Hans-Georg Gadamer, Truth and Method (New York: Seabury, 1975), 238.

2.Paul Goble, Can Russian Diplomacy Hold Russia Together? Radio Free Europe /Radio Liberty, 23 September 1998.

3. л, : Edward . 1lworth, The Modern Uzbeks (1990), Alan Fisher, The Crimean Tatars (1978), Martha B. Olcott, The Kazakhs (1987), Azade-Ayse Rorlich,The Volga Tatars (1986), Andrejs Plakans, The Latvians (1995), Andrey L. Altstadt, The Azerbaijani Turks (1992), , Rodger Swearingen, Siberia and the Soviet Far East (1987). , Hafeez Malik, ed., Central Asia: Its Strategic Importance and Future Prospects (New York: St. Martins, 1994); Islam Karimov, Uzbekistan on the Threshold of the Twenty-First Century (New York: St Martins, 1998).

4.Jan Kucharzewski, The Origins of Modern Russia (New York: Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences, 1948).

5.Uri Raanan, Richard Pipes, Helene Carrere-dEncausse, Alain Besancon.

6.Roman Szporluk, Communism and Nationalism: Karl Marx versus Friedrich List (Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1988).

7.Anthony D. Smith, The Ethnic Revival (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1981).

8.Helene Carrere-dEncausse, The End of the Soviet Empire: The Triumph of Nations (New York: Basic Books, 1993).

9.E. M. Thompson, The Wallenberg Case: The Inferred Soviet Viewpoint, Raoul Wallenberg in Perspective, edited by K. D. Reiser and Thomas Neumann (Houston: Southwest Regional Office of the Anti-Defamation League, 1986), 1215.

10.Reuters, 20 August 1998.

11.Hans Kohn, The Idea of Nationalism, 2d ed. (New York: Collier Macmillan, 1967).

12 John E. E. Dalberg-Acton, Nationality, Essay in the History of

Liberty, vol. 1 (Indianopolis: Liberty Classics, 1986), 413.

13 Elie Kedourie, Nationalism (London: Hutchinson, 1961); E. J. Hobsbawn Nations and Nationalism since 1780, 2d rev. ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990).

14.Leela Gandhi, Postcolonial Theory: A Critical Introduction (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1998), 107-8.

15.Edward W. Said, Orientalism (1979) (New York: Vintage Books, 1994).

16. : Paul Johnson, Modern Times: The World from the Twenties to the Eighties (New York: Harper & Row, 1983), . . . (J. F. Froude), , , , XIX . Jefrey Arx, Progress and Pessimism, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1985), 205.

17.Margaret Canovan, National and Political Theory (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 1996), 137.

18.Gandhi, PT.

19.J. A. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study (London: Allen & Unwin, 1948); Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, . Farrington (New York: Grove, 1963); Philip D. Curtin, ed., Imperialism (New York: Walker & Co., 1971).

20.Karl W. Deutsch, Nationalism and Social Communication (NewYork: John Wiley, 1953), 143; Katherine Verdery, Ethnicity as Culture: Some Soviet-American Contrasts, Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism 15, nos. 12 (1988).

21.Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (London: Verso, 1983).

22.Գ . . , . J. G. Herder, Reflections on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind (17841791), : Frank Manuel (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1968); J. H. Hayes, The Historical Evolution of Modern Nationalism (New York: Smith, 1931); Boyd A. Shafer, Faces of Nationalism (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1972); Salo W. Baron, Modem Nationalism and Religion (1947) (New York: Meridian, 1960).

23.Louis L Snyder, The Dynamics of Nationalism: Readings in Its Meaning and Development (Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1964), 229-33.

24.Adam Mickiewicz, Ksiegi narodu Pielgrzymstwa Polskiego, Dziela wszystkie, Konrad Gorski (Wroclaw and Warszawa: Ossolineum, 19691972); Juliush Slowacki, Anhelli, : Dorotea Prall Radin (London: Allen & Unwin, 1930); Louis Kossuth, Proclamation of Hungarian Independence, Snyder, 232; Eva Haraszti, Kossuth as an English Journalist, Brian McLean (Boulder, CO: Social Science Monographs distributed by Columbia Univ. Press, 1990).

25.Minority Rights: Problems, Parameters, and Patterns in the CSCE [Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe] Context (Washington, DC: CSCE, 1992), 12.

26.Anthony D. Smith, The Ethnic Origins of Nations (1986) (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993).

27.Max Scheler, Ressentiment, : W. Holdheim (New York: Free Press, 1960); ˺ (Theodore Adorno) : Kolakowski, Main Currents of Marxism, vol. , : P. S. Falla (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), 358-9.

28. The Invention of Tradition , ͳ XIX . , , , , , .

29. 1978 . ᒺ 149 ; 1998 . 185. Economist, 19 December 1998.

30.Smith, Ethnic Origins of Nations, 58.

31.Gayatri Spivak, The Postcolonial Critic: Interviews, Strategies, Dialogues (London: Routledge, 1990), 7.

32.Elleke Boehmer, Colonial and Postcolonial Literature (Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1995).


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