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1.Edward Keenan, On Certain Mythical Beliefs and Russian Behaviors, The Legacy of History in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, edited by S. Frederick Starr, vol. 1 (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1994), 1940.

2. (: , 1957 61).

3.. . , , 4 (: , 1966), 364.

4.New York Times, 14 December 1991.

5.Milan Kundera, A Conversation with Philip Roth, Translated by Peter Kussi, in The Book of Laughter and Forgetting, : Michael Heim (New York: Penguin, 1980); and Jaan Kross, The Czars Madman, translated by Anselm Hollo (New York: Pantheon, 1993).

6.August von Haxthausen, Studies on the interior of Russia (1847-52), edited by S. Frederick Starr, translated by Eleanore L. M. Schmidt (Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press, 1972), 310.

7. / / .

8.Leela Gandhi, Postcolonial Theory (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1998), 134.

9. 1995 p. Clarinet News , . , . 1990 . , , , , , , .

10.Rimzil Valiev, Rim Sidikov, and Guelnar Khasanova, 1997 in Review: Tatarstan Faces Challenges, Radio Free Europ/Radio Liberty, 31 December 1997.

11.Sabirzyan Badretdinov, Sincere Soldiers and Naive Servants, Transitions 5, no. 12 (December 1998), 98.

12. , 1993 -, , , 1990- 1980- 50%.

13.Paul Goble, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, 21 September 1998.

14.Michael Hachter, Internal Colonialism; The Celtic Fringe in British National Development, 15361966 (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1975).

15.Hechter, 30.

16.Aleksandr Solzhenitsin, The Mortal Danger, : . Nicholson and A. Klimoff (New York: Harper and Row, 1980), 1416.

17.H. . , , (, 1890); . . , - (: , , 1890).

18.Leszek Kolakowski, Main Currents of Marxism, vol. 3, : . S. Falla (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), 95.

19.Transcript of George Kennans conversation with David Gergen, MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour, 18 April 1996.

20. (Stephen Cohen). 14 1998 p. (MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour) , , , .

21.Richard Pipes, Is Russia Still an Enemy? Foreign Affairs 76, no. 5 (September-October 1997), 72.

22.Peter Ford, The View from the Kremlin: Russia as Eternal Superpower, Christian Science Monitor Online, 29 May 1997.

23. : , , , , . A Conversation with David Gergen, MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour, 18 April 1996. . George Kennan, On American Principles, Foreign Affairs 74, no. 2 (March-April 1995), 116-26.

24.Gandhi, 170.

25. , 1 1991 p. MacNeil-Lehrer NewsHour, 2 December 1991.

26.S. During, Post-colonialism, in Beyond the Disciplines: papers from the Australian Academy of the Humanities Symposium, edited by K. K. Ruthven, no. 13 (Canberra, Australia: Australian Academy of the Humanities, 1992), 95.

27.Jozef Czapskis Inhuman Soil [Ziemia nieludzka] 1956 p. .

28.Maly Rocznik Statystyszny (Warszawa: Glowny Urzad Statystyczny, 1995), 44.

29.Peter Ford, Crossing Europe, Christian Science Monitor Online, 19 and 31 July 1998.

30.Eric Hobsbawn and Terence Ranger, eds., The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983).

31.P. Putnam, ed. Seven Britons in Imperial Russia, 16981812 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1952).

32.Phyllis Penn Kohler, . , Journey for Our Time: The Russian Journals of the Marquis de Custine (Washington, DC: Gateway, 1987).

33.Diana Brydon and Helen Tiffin, Decolonizing Cultures (Sydney, Austrlia: Dangaroo Press, 1993), 127.

34.New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1967.

35.Pipes (1974), 120. , , , 1999 p., , , 62% 102% . Michael Gordon, Russia Offers 1999 Budget, New York Times, 11 December 1998.

36.George Vernadsky, A History of Russia (New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press, 1961); and N. V. Riasanovsky, A History of Russia, 4th ed. (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1984).

37.Jaroslaw Czubaty, Rosja swiat: Wyobraznia polityczna elity wladzy imperium rosyiskiego w poczatkach XIX wieku (Warszawa: Neriton, 1997), 61.

38.Norman Davies, World War II: Grand Illusions, New York Review of Books 42, no. 9, 25 May 1995.

39.Judith H. Dobrzynski, Russia Pledges to Give Back Some of Its Art Looted in War, New York Times, 3 December 1998.

40.Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Cancer Ward, : Rebecca Frank (New York: Dell, 1968), 34.

41.Said (1994), 7, 9.

42. .

43. .

44.Ryszard Kapuscinski, Imperium (Warsaw: Czytelnik, 1993).

45.E. M. Thompson, Russian Formalism and Anglo-American New Criticizm: A Comparative Study (The Hague: Mouton, 1971). .

46.. , : , . . , ., . , . 3 (: , 1995), 421-76.

47. , , 5 1990; , , 7 ( 1989), 185-87.

48.. , , : . . , ., . . 3, 393420.

49.. . , (: , 1992).

50.. : Bart Moore-Gilbert, Postcolonial Theory (London: Verso, 1998), 3473.

51.Canovan, Nationhood and Political Theory.

52. . . , .

53.Gandhi, 89.

54.Homi Bhabha, DissemiNation Time, Narrative and the Margins of the Modern Nation, The Location of Culture (London: Routledge, 1994); Gillian Whitlock and Helen Tiffin, eds., Re-Siting Queens English: Text and Tradition in Post-Colonial Literature (Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 1992).

55.Bill Ashcroft et al, The Empire Writes Back (London: Routledge, 1989), 3839.

56. , . 52.

57. , (brief space), (half world) , 糿. Edgar Mittelholzer, My Bones and My Flute (London, 1955), 43.

58.Gandhi, 99-100.

59.Bhabha, The Location of Culture,23.

60.Gayatri Spivak, Neocolonialism and the Secret Agent of Knowledge, quoted in Moore-Gilbert, 78.

61.Gandhi, 160.

62. , .168169.

63.I. Adam and H. Tiffin, eds., Past the Last Post: Theorizing Postcolonialism and Postmodernism (Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1990), vii.

64.Moore-Gilbert, 10.

65. - (1934) , , , , , . ij XIX XX .

66.Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth, : . Farrington (New York: Grove, 1968), 101.

67. , , , 5 ( 1989), 176181.

68. , . Berdiaev, The Russian Idea, : R. M. French (New York: Macmillan, 1948); Berdiaev, The Origin of Russian Communism, Idea, : R. M. French (London: Geoffrey Bles, 1955) G. Gorer and J. Rickman, The People of Great Russia (1949) (New York: Norton, 1962), 187.

69.E. M. Thompson, Understanding Russia: The Holy Fool in Russian Culture (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1987).

70.Norman Davies, Gods Playground: A History of Poland, vol. 2 (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1984), 8690; Tadeusz Bobrowski, Pamietnik mojego zycia, vol. 2 (Warszawa: Panstwowy Instytut Wydawniczy, 1979), 223, 441522; Pipes (1974), 118119. ̳ ³ (1832).

71.Marian Radwan, ed., Inwentarz materialow do dziejow Kosciola Katolickiego w Rzeczypospolitej w Rosji [Inventory of materials about the history of the Catholic Church in the Polish Respublica and in Russia], 3 vols. (Lublin: Instytut Europy Srodkowo-Wschodniej, 1997-98).

72.Seton-Watson, 435.

73. ; , . , (: , 1961), 149.

74.Ivan Turgenev, Fathers and Sons, edited by Ralph E. Matlaw (New York: Norton, 1966), 27.

75.Seton-Watson, 280-88; Andrzej Nowak, ed., Kronika Polski (Krakow: Kluszczynski, 1998), 431.

76. 볻 . , , ( ) . Juliusz Slowacki, Dziela wszystkie, vol. 3 (Wroclaw: Ossolineum, 1952), 9-59. 볻 : Dorothea Prall Radin (London: Allen & Unwin, 1930).

77. . . . 19.

78.Badretdinov, 97-100.

79.Solzhenitsyn, Cancer Ward, 74.

80. 񳿻, 1995 . (Rachel Denber) Human Rights Watch / Helsinki. , 1995 . 1990- . , , . Reuter (Moscow), 8 December 1995.

81. / / / .

82.Peter Ford, The View from the Kremlin: Russia as Eternal Superpower, Christian Science Monitor Online, 29 May 1997. , 1997 . 뺺, , : [ ] . , .  : , . , , 񳿻. Գ, : , , , , . , , .

83.Uri Raanan, Introduction in Uri Raanan, ed., The Soviet Empire: The Challenge of National and Democratic Movements (Lexington, MA: D. Heath, 1990), x.

84.Agence France-Press, 15 January 1999.

85.. . , ., .

86. , . , , N56 (1992).

87. II . , , , 28 (13 1998).

88. (Penny Morvant) OMRI Daily Digest, 1 September 1995.

89.Davies, 1984, 89.

90.. , . . , , . 1/2 (137/138) (1945), 8990.

91. , . . , , . . , , , ³ ³, (Chomsky), dz, . Said, Culture and Imperialism, 5.

92. , , , ( 1996). : Steven Clancy, Throw Everything Overboard That Smells of Blood. Sarmatian Review 17, no. 3 (1997), 482.

93.E. J. Hobsbawn, Nations and Nationalism since 1780, 2d rev. ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1990), 65.

94. (Paul Marer) , . Paul Marer, Dollar GNPs of the USSR and Eastern Europe (Washington, DC: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1985); Paul Marer, ed., East European Integration and East-West Trade (Bloomington, Indiana Univ. Press, 1980); Paul Marer, Soviet and East European Foreign Trade (Bloomington, Indiana Univ. Press, 1972).

95.William Fuller Jr., Strategy and Power in Russia, 16001914 (New York: Free Press, 1992).

96. 1995 p. , 20 . , , 89.

97. ³ / , 15 1998 , , , , , .

98.Christian Caryl, Russias Tough Guy, U. S, News and World Report Online, 21 September 1998.

99.Paul Goble, Can Russian Diplomacy Hold Russia Together? Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, 23 September 1998.


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