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1. : Archives royales de Man, vol. X, 123; translated and quoted by Bertrand Lafont in The Women of the Palace at Mari, in Everyday Life in Ancient Mesopotamia by Jean Bottero (2001), pp. 129134. .

2.Bottero, p. 130.


.

1.Translated by Samuel Kramer, as Appendix E of The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character (1963), p. 328.

2.See, for example, Charles Pellegrino, Return to Sodom and Gomorrah (1994), p. 155 ff.

3.In M. E. L. Mallowan, Early Mesopotamia and Iran (1965), p. 7.

4.Translated by Gwendolyn Leick in Mesopotamia: The Invention of the City (2001), p. 1.

5.Translated by Diane Wolkstein and Samuel Noah Kramer in Inanna, Queen of Heaven and Earth: Her Stones and Hymns from Sumer (1983), p. 33.


.

1. : N. K. Sandars, The Epic of Gilgamesh (1972), p. 110.

2. , : Bottero, p. 69.

3.Quoted in William Ryan and Walter Pitman, Noahs Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries about the Event that Changed History (2000), p. 54. .

4.Ryan and Pitman, p. 57.

5. , , : Return to Sodom and Gomorrah.

6.Quoted in John Keay, India: A History (2000), pp. 12.

7.See Peter James and Nick Thorpe, Ancient Mysteries (1999), p. 13.

8.Sandars, p. 112.

9.Quoted in Ryan and Pitman, p. 50.

10.Origin de los Indias, quoted by Lewis Spence in The Myths of Mexico and Peru (1994), p. 108.

11.Translated by Samuel Kramer and quoted in Bottero, p. 19.

12.Richard J. Mouw, Some Poor Sailor, Tempest Tossed: Nautical Rescue Themes in Evangelical Hymnody, in Wonderful Words of Life: Hymns in American Protestant History and Theology, ed. Richard J. Mouw and Mark A. Noll (2004), p. 249.


.

1.Michael Rice, Egypts Making: The Origins of Ancient Egypt 50002000 BC (2003), p. 73.

2.Stephanie Dalley, ed. and trans., Myths from Mesopotamia (2000), p. 196.

3.Ibid., pp. 198199.

4.Pellegrino, p. 39.

5.Harriet Crawford, Sumer and the Sumerians (1991), p. 23.


.

1.Rice, p. 11.

2.David P. Silverman, general ed., Ancient Egypt (2003), p. 107.

3.A. Rosalie David, Religion and Magic in Ancient Egypt (2002), p. 46.

4.Gerald P. Verbrugghe and John M. Wickersham, Berossos and Manetho, Introduced and Trans-lated: Native Traditions in Ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt (1996), p. 131.


.

1.Stanley Wolpert, A New History of India (2004), p. 11.

2.Keay, p. 2.


. -

1.J. A. G. Roberts, The Complete History of China (2003), p. 3.

2.Anne Birrell, Chinese Mythology: An Introduction (1993), p. 46.


.

1.Steven Roger Fischer, A History of Writing (2001), pp. 2526. - , ( ) - .

2.Quoted in W. V. Davies, Egyptian Hieroglyphs: Reading the Past (1987), p. 47.


.

1.Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, translated by J. A. Black, et al., in The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature at http://www.etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/ (1998); hereafter abbreviated as ETC.

2.Translated by Sandars, p. 61.

3.Sandars, p. 71. . . , , , .

4. , , .: Kramer, The Sumerians, pp. 7880. , .

5.Gilgamesh and Agga of Kish, in ETC.


.

1.Herodotus, The Histories, translated by Robin Waterfield (1998), 2.99.

2.Ian Shaw, ed., The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (2002), pp. 6869.

3.Rudolf Anthes, Egyptian Theology in the Third Millennium B.C., Journal of Near Eastern Studies 18:3 (1959), p. 171.

4.Ibid.

5.Ian Cunnison, The Luapula Peoples of Northern Rhodesia (1959), p. 98.

6.Edmund Leach, The Mothers Brother in Ancient Egypt, RAIN [Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland] 15 (1976), p. 20.

7.Shaw, p. 9.

8.William Flinders Petrie, Researches in Sinai (1906), p. 41.

9.Rice, p. 14.

10.Peter A. Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reignby-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt (1994), p. 28.


.

1.Dalley, p. 42 ff.

2. . , . . , , : , .

3. : pp. 118119.


.

1.Clayton, p. 33.

2.Richard L. Zettler and Lee Home, Treasures from the Royal Tombs of Ur (1998), p. 29.

3.This is J. M. Robertss suggestion in The Penguin History of the World (1997), p. 71.

4.Herodotus, 2.12.

5.Paul Jordan, Riddles of the Sphinx (1998), p. 73.

6.Clayton, p. 45.

7.Herodotus, 2.124.

8.Herodotus 2.126.

9.Bruce G. Trigger, Monumental Architecture: A Thermodynamic Explanation of Symbolic Behavior, World Archaeology 22:2 (1990), p. 119.

10.Dean Hardy and Marjorie Killick, Pyramid Energy: The Philosophy of God, the Science of Man (1994), p. 169.

11.Peter Tompkins, Secrets of the Great Pyramid (1971), p. xiv.

12.James and Thorpe, p. 208.


.

1.Translated by Samuel Kramer, The Sumerians, p. 51.

2.Ibid., p. 313.

3.John Winthrop Hackett, ed., Warfare in the Ancient World (1989), p. 4.

4.Leick, Mesopotamia, p. 149.

5.I. M. Diakonoff, ed., Early Antiquity (1991), p. 82.

6.Translated by Samuel Kramer, From the Tablets of Sumer (1956), p. 48.

7.Diakonoff, p. 82.

8.J. S. Cooper, Sumerian and Akkadian Royal Inscriptions, vol. 1, Presargonic Inscriptions (1986), p. 78.

9.Nels Bailkey, Early Mesopotamian Constitutional Development, American Historical Review 72:4 (1967), p. 1222.

10.Translated by Kramer, The Sumerians, pp. 323324.

11.Leick, Mesopotamia, p. 150.

12.Translated by Kramer, The Sumerians, pp. 322323.

13.Cooper, p. 95.

14.Crawford, p. 25.


.

1., , : James B. Pritchard, ed., in The Ancient Near East: An Anthology of Texts and Pictures (1958), pp. 8586, , : Gwendolyn Leick in Mesopotamia, p. 94.

2.J. M. Roberts, p. 51.

3.Translated by Kramer, The Sumerians, p. 330.

4.Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus, translated by Wayne Ambler (2001), 1.3.89.

5.The Sargon Legend, Segment B, in ETC.

6.Translated by Kramer, The Sumerians, p. 324.

7.Diakonoff, p. 85.

8.Ibid.

9.Translated by Kramer, The Sumerians, p. 324.

10.H. W. F. Saggs, The Might That Was Assyria (1984), p. 19.

11.Adapted from Benjamin R. Foster, Before the Muses: An Anthology of Akkadian Literature, vol. 1 (1996), p. 254.

12.Michael Roaf, Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East (1996), p. 97.

13.A. Leo Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization (1977), p. 154.

14.Diakonoff, p. 86.

15.Bailkey, p. 1225. , , .

16.Leick, Mesopotamia, p. 99.


.

1.Keay, p. 6.

2.Wolpert, pp. 1415.

3.Fischer, p. 61.

4.Wolpert, p. 18.

5.Keay, p. 13.

6.Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India (1998), p. 23.

7.Ibid., pp. 2223.

8. : Kulke and Rothermund, p. 23, and Keay, pp. 89.


.

1.Herodotus, 2.127128.

2.Jordan, p. 80.

3.Ibid., p. XVII.

4.Herodotus, 2.129.

5.Herodotus, 2.133.

6.Herodotus, 2.131.

7.Clayton, p. 60.

8.A. Rosalie David, The Egyptian Kingdoms (1988), p. 16.

9. 217 : J. H. Breasted in Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt (University of Chicago Press, 1912); 309 : R. O. Faulkner in The Ancient Pyramid Texts (Clarendon Press, 1969); : Jon E. Lewis, ed., Ancient Egypt (2003), pp. 2729.

10.Clayton, p. 64.

11.Quoted in Clayton, p. 67.

12.Colin McEvedy, The New Penguin Atlas of Ancient History (2002), p. 36.


.

1.Kramer, The Sumerians, p. 61.

2.Roaf, p. 98.

3. : Hugo Radau, Early Babylonian History Down to the End of the Fourth Dynasty of Ur (1899), p. 307.

4.David Willis McCullough, ed., Chronicles of the Barbarians (1998), p. 8.

5.Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia, p. 62.

6.The Cursing of Agade, in ETC.

7.Ibid.

8.Kramer, The Sumerians, p. 330.

9.A tigi to Bau for Gudea, in ETC.

10.The Victory of Utu-hegal, in ETC.

11.Kramer, The Sumerians, p. 325.

12.Ur-Namma the canal-digger, in ETC.

13.A praise poem of Ur-Namma in ETC.


.

1.Gen. 10:1124.

2.Victor P. Hamilton, The Book of Genesis: Chapters 117 (1990), p. 363.

3.Adapted from The death of Ur-Namma (Ur-Namma A), in ETC.

4.Jonathan N. Tubb, Canaanites: Peoples of the Past (1998), p. 15.

5.J. M. Roberts, p. 41.

6.Tubb, p. 39.

7.Donald B. Redford Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times (1992), pp. 6364.

8.Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt (2004), p. 80.

9.Quoted in Redford, Egypt, pp. 6768.

10.Quran 2.144150.

11.Roaf, p. 101.

12.Quoted in Leick, Mesopotamia, pp. 132133.

13.Leick, Mesopotamia, p. 126.

14.Roaf, p. 102.

15.Tubb, p. 38.


.

1.John Perlin, Forest Journey: The Role of Wood in the Development of Civilization (1991), p. 43.

2.Thorkild Jacobsen, Salinity and Irrigation Agriculture in Antiquity (1982), p. 468.

3.D. Bruce Dickson, Circumscription by Anthropogenic Environmental Destruction: An Expansion of Carneiros (1970) Theory of the Origin of the State, American Antiquity 52:4 (1987), p. 713.

4.Kramer, The Sumerians, pp. 333334, adapted.

5.Ibid., pp. 334335, adapted.

6. : The Lament for Urim, in ETC.

7.Ibid.


.

1.Verbrugghe and Wickersham, p. 137.

2.Stephan Seidlmayer, The First Intermediate Period, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, ed. Ian Shaw (2002), pp. 128129.

3.Verbrugghe and Wickersham, p. 194.

4.Clayton, p. 72.

5.Instructions for Merikare, in Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol. 1 (1975), p. 70.

6.Shaw, p. 161.

7.Ibid., p. 151.

8.Dodson and Hilton, p. 87.

9.Ibid., p. 90.

10.The Prophecy of Nerferti, quoted in Shaw, p. 158.

11.Clayton, p. 79.

12.Shaw, p. 160.

13.Silverman, p. 79.


.

1.Reconstruction of Ishbi-Erra and Kindattu, segments A, B, D, and E in ETC.

2.Roaf, p. no.

3.Saggs, Assyria, pp. 2830.

4.Reconstructed from the somewhat fragmented Letter from Nann-ki-ag to Lipit-Estar about Gungunums troops and Letter from Lipit-Estar to Nann-ki-ag about driving away the enemy, both in ETC.

5.An adab to Nanna for Gungunum (Gungunum A), in ETC.

6.L. W. King, The Letters and Inscriptions of Hammurabi, vol. 3 (1976), p. 213, translation of Reign of Sumuabu.

7.Translated by A. K. Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian Chronicles (1975), p. 155.

8.Assyrian king list quoted in Saggs, Assyria, p. 25.

9.Daniel David Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylon, Volume I: Historical Records of Assyria from the Earliest Times to Sargon (1926), p. 16.

10.Saggs, Assyria, p. 37. n. Roaf, p. 116.

12.Saggs, Assyria, p. 25.

13.Gwendolyn Leick, The Babylonians: An Introduction (2003), p. 33.

14.Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia, p. 156.

15.H. W. F. Saggs, Babylonians (1995), p. 98.


.

1.Ssuma Chien, The Grand Scribes Records, vol. 1, ed. William H. Nienhauser, Jr., translated by Tsai-fa Cheng et al. (1994), p. 21.

2.Ibid., p. 22.

3.Ibid., p. 32.

4.John King Fairbank and Merle Goldman, China: A New History (2002), p. 37.

5.Li Liu and Xingcan Chen, State Formation in Early China (2003), p. 35.

6.Ibid., p. 35.

7.Chien, p. 37.

8.Ibid., p. 38.

9.J. A. G. Roberts, p. 5.

10.Chien, p. 38; the exact quote is I regret failing to kill Tang in Hsia-tai; that is what has brought me to this.


.

1.Jorgen Laessoe, People of Ancient Assyria: Their Inscriptions and Correspondence (1963), p. 47.

2. : Laessoe, p. 50.

3.Laessoe, pp. 6869.

4.Ibid., p. 76.

5.Ibid., p. 78.

6. , : Jack M. Sasson, The King and I: A Mari King in Changing Perceptions, Journal of the American Oriental Society 118:4 (1998), p. 454.

7.King, vol. 2, p. 176.

8.Pritchard, p. 142.

9.Norman Yoffee, The Decline and Rise of Mesopotamian Civilization: An Ethnoarchaeological Perspective on the Evolution of Social Complexity, American Antiquity 44:1 (1979), p. 12.

10.Saggs, Babylonians, p. 101.

11.King, vol 1, p. xxxvii.

12.Roaf, p. 121.


.

1.Shaw, p. 169.

2.Clayton, p. 93.

3.Josephus, Against Apion, 1.14.7477, in The Works ofjosephus (1987).

4.Ibid., 1.14.85.

5.Redford, Egypt, p. 126.

6.George Steindorff and Keith C. Steele, When Egypt Ruled the East (1957), p. 29.


.

1.J. Lesley Fitton, Minoans (2002), p. 67.

2.Ibid., pp. 104105.

3.Ibid., p. 138.

4.Apollodorus, The Library (1921), 3.1.34 and 3.15.8.

5.Cyrus H. Gordon, The Common Background of Greek and Hebrew Civilizations (1965), pp. 5152.

6.Thucydides, The Landmark Thucydides: A Comprehensive Guide to the Peloponnesian War, trans-lated by Richard Crawley (1998), 1.45.

7.Herodotus, 1.171.

8.Thucydides, 1.8.

9.Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze Age Crete (1990), p. 148.

10.Fitton, p. 166.

11.Christos G. Doumas, Them, Pompeii of the Ancient Aegean (1983),

12.Ibid., pp. 134135.

13.Ibid., p. 139.

14.Ibid., p. 147.


.

1.Wolpert, p. 21.

2.G. F. Dales, The Mythical Massacre at Mohenjo Daro, in Ancient Cities of the Indus, ed. G. L.

Possehl (1979), p. 291.

3.Gregory L. Possehl, The Mohenjo-daro Floods: A Reply, American Anthropologist 69:1 (1967),

p. 32.

4.Ibid., p. 35.

5.Romila Thapar, Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300 (2002), p. 87.

6.Julian Reade, Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 60:1 (2001), p. 27.

7.Wolpert, p. 27.

8.Ibid., p. 24.

9.Keay, p. 20.


.

1.Robert S. Hardy, The Old Hittite Kingdom: A Political History, American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 58:2 (1941), p. 180.

2.Trevor Bryce, Life and Society in the Hittite World (2002), pp. 116117.

3.G. G. Giorgadze, The Hittite Kingdom, in Early Antiquity, ed. I. M. Diakanoff, trans. Alexander Kirjanov (1991), p. 271.

4.Bryce, p. 230.

5.Robert S. Hardy, p. 181.

6.Giorgadze, p. 272.

7.Robert S. Hardy, p. 194.

8. , . : Bryce, p. 11.

9.Bryce, p. 31.

10.Redford, Egypt, p. 134.

11.Leick, The Babylonians, p. 42.

12.Robert S. Hardy, p. 206.

13.Bryce, p. 107.


.

1. : Steindotff and Steele, p. 31.

2.Silverman, p. 30.

3.Clayton, p. 102.

4.Josephus, Against Apion, 1.14.

5.Lewis, p. 98.

6.Shaw, p. 216.

7.Redford, Egypt, p. 129.

8.Eliezer D. Oren, The Kingdom of Sharuhen and the Hyksos Kingdom, in The Hyksos: New Historical and Archaeological Perspectives, ed. Eliezer D. Oren (1997), p. 253.

9.Lewis, p. 98.


.

1.Dodson and Hilton, p. 127.

2.Clayton, p. 105.

3.Edward F. Wente, Some Graffiti from the Reign of Hatshepsut, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 43:1 (1984), pp. 5253. , .

4.E. P. Uphill, A Joint Sed-Festival of Thutmose III and Queen Hatshepsut, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 20:4 (1961), pp. 249251.

5.I. V. Vinogradov, The New Kingdom of Egypt, in Early Antiquity, ed. I. M. Diakonoff, trans.

Alexander Kirjanov (1991), p. 178.

6.Ibid.

7.Ibid., p. 180.

8.Steindorfif and Steele, p. 58.

9.Ibid., p. 57.


.

1.Laessoe, p. 83.

2.Ibid., p. 87.

3.Steindorff and Steele, p. 63.

4.Robert S. Hardy, p. 206.

5.Ibid., p. 208.

6.Bryce, pp. 2829.

7.Laessoe, p. 89.

8.Redford, Egypt, p. 164.

9.Ibid., p. 167.

10.Alan R. Schulman, Diplomatic Marriage in the Egyptian New Kingdom, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 38:3 (1979), p. 83.


.

1.Chien, p. 43.

2.Kwang-Chih Chang, Shang Civilization (1980), p. 11.

3.Chien, p. 45.

4.Arthur Cotterell, China: A Cultural History (1988), p. 16.

5.Chang, p. 10.

6.Quoted in Chang, p. 11.

7.Chien, p. 47.


.

1.Lord William Taylour, The Mycenaeans (1983), p. 18.

2.Plutarch, Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation (2001), p. 10.

3.Taylour, p. 41.

4.Ibid., p. 147; Robert Morkot, The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece (1996), p. 29.

5.Taylour, p. 137.

6.John Chadwick, Linear B and Related Scripts (1987), pp. 4449.

7.Herodotus, 3.122.

8.Taylour, p. 156.

9.Fitton, p. 179.

10.J. T. Hooker, Homer and Late Minoan Crete, Journal of Hellenic Studies 89 (1969), p. 60.


.

1.Clayton, p. 116.

2.David OConnor and Eric H. Cline, Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign (1998), p. 13.

3.Ibid., p. 11.

4.Tacitus, The Annals of Imperial Rome (1996), p. 111.

5.Details found in Ernest A. Wallis Budge, Tutankhamen: Amenism, Atenism, and Egyptian Monotheism (1923), p. 68, . : Clayton, p. 117.

6.Donald B. Redford, Akhenaten: The Heretic King (1984), pp. 3637.

7.Clayton, p. 116.

8.OConnor and Cline, p. 20.

9.Laessoe, p. 90.

10.OConnor and Cline, p. 243.

11.William L. Moran, ed. and trans., The Amarna Letters (1992), p. 1.

12.Ibid., pp. 12.

13.Ibid., p. 8.

14.OConnor and Cline, pp. 23.

15.Redford, Akhenaten, p. 162.

16.Dodson and Hilton, p. 142.

17.Redford, Akhenaten, p. 52.

18.Cyril Aldred, Akhenaten, King of Egypt (1988), p. 278.

19.Ibid., pp. 241243.

20.Redford, Akhenaten, p. 141.


.

1. - ( EA), 20-, : Moran, p. 48.

2.Redford, Akhenaten, p. 195.

3.EA 41, in Moran, p. 114.

4.EA 16, in Moran, p. 16.

5.Redford, Akhenaten, p. 197.

6.Laessoe, p. 90.

7.EA 9, in Moran, p. 18.

8.Saggs, Babylonians, pp. 118119.

9.Clayton, p. 134.

10.Nicholas Reeves, The Complete Tutankhamun: The King, The Tomb, The Royal Treasure (1995), p. 23.

11.Clayton, p. 135.


.

1.Clayton, p. 138.

2.Ibid., p. 146.

3.Bryce, p. in.

4.Shaw, p. 298.

5.Diakonoff, p. 189.

6.Shaw, p. 298.

7.Clayton, p. 151.

8. : Bryce, p. 172.

9.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 27. 10. Bryce, p. 108.

11.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 40.

12.Redford, Egypt, p. 188.

13.Clayton, p. 153.

14.Ibid., p. 155.


.

10.Barbara W. Tuchman, The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam (1984), p. 43. 1. Taylour, p. 159.

2.Homer, The Iliad, Book 3; this translation is E. V. Rieus (1950).

3.Virgil, The Aeneid, 2.1320, translated by C. Day Lewis (1950).

4.Ibid., 2.265267, 327.

5.E. V. Rieu, Introduction, in Homer, The Iliad (1950), p. xiv.

6.Chadwick, p. 36.

7.Clayton, p. 162.

8.Herodotus, 1.4.

9.Herodotus, 1.5.

11.Thucydides, 1.11.1.

12.Homer, The Odyssey, Book 3, Samuel Butler translation (1898).

13.Thucydides, 1.12.2.


.

1.J. Legge and C. Waltham translation, quoted by Chang, p. 12.

2.Fairbank and Goldman, p. 34.

3.J. A. G. Roberts, p. 67.

4.Ibid., p. 8.

5.Chang, pp. 3235.

6.A. Waley translation, quoted in Chang, p. 13.

7.Cotterell, China, p. 24.


.

1.Keay, p. 26.

2.Ranbir Vohra, The Making of India: A Historical Survey (2001), pp. 34.

3.Keay, p. 29. .

4.The Rig Veda, translated by Franklin Edgerton in The Beginnings of Indian Philosophy (1965), pp. 5256.

5.Kulke and Rothermand, p. 35.

6.Thapar, Early India, p. 114.


.

1.Redfbrd, Egypt, p. 247.

2.Clayton, p. 157.

3.Bryce, p. 94.

4.Ibid., p. 22.

5.K. A. Kitchen, trans., Ramesside Inscriptions, Historical and Biographical, vol. 4 (1969), 5.3.

6.Bryce, p. 95.

7.Ibid., p. 109.

8.Ibid., p. 26.

9.Ibid., p. 234.

10.Redfbrd, Egypt, p. 245.

11. , RS 34, : Sylvie Lackenbacher, Le rot bdtisseur. Les recks de construction assyriens des origins a Teghitphalasar III (1982).

12.Itamar Singer, New Evidence on the End of the Hittite Empire, in The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment, ed. Eliezer D. Oren (2000), p. 22.

13.Laessoe, p. 98.

14.Leick, Mesopotamia, p. 209.

15.Chronicle P, quoted in Saggs, Babylonians, p. 119.

16.Quoted in Roaf, p. 148.

17.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 49.

18.Saggs, Assyria, p. 52.

19.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 49.

20.Leick, Mesopotamia, p. 251.

21.Saggs, Babylonians, p. 120.

22. *, . A. Malamat in Cushan Rishathaim and the Decline of the Near East around 1200 BC, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 13:4 (1954), p. 234.


.

1.Clayton, p. 160.

2. : Lewis, p. 219.

3.Jacobus van Dijk, The Amarna Period and the Later New Kingdom, in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, ed. Ian Shaw (2000), pp. 304305.

4. : Redford, Egypt, p. 251.

5.Redford, Egypt, p. 252.

6.Lewis, p. 245.

7.David OConnor, The Sea Peoples and the Egyptian Sources, in The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment, ed. Eliezer D. Oren (2000), p. 95.

8.Ibid., p. 85.

9.Lewis, pp. 245246.

10.van Dijk, p. 306.

11.Lewis, p. 247.

12.Ibid., p. 252.

13.Ibid., p. 254.

14.Clayton, p. 168.

( -500 9999) ( III IV). . 41 , . II. (. .)

15.See van Dijk, p. 308, : Lewis, p. 265.

16.Clayton, p. 171.


.

1.Taylour, p. 159.

2.Morkot, p. 46.

3.Herodotus, 5.76.

4.Konon, Narratives, Sec. 26, in The Narratives of Konon: Text Translation and Commentary of the Diegesis by Malcolm Brown (2003).

5.Thucydides, 1.12.24.

6.Taylour, p. 161.

7.E. Watson Williams, The End of an Epoch, Greece & Rome, 2d series, 9:2 (1962), pp. 119120.

8.Philip P. Betancourt, The Aegean and the Origin of the Sea Peoples, in The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment, ed. Eliezer D. Oren (2000), p. 300.

9.Homer, The Iliad, 1.1214, translated by Robert Fitzgerald (1974).

10.Williams, p. 117.

11.Quoted in Williams, p. 112.


.

1.Translated by H. Otten in the journal Mitteilungen des deutschen Orientgesellschaft 94 (1963), p. 21, and quoted in Redford, Egypt, p. 254.

2.Roaf, p. 149.

3.A. T. Olmstead, Tiglath-Pileser I and His Wars, Journal of the American Oriental Society 37 (1917), p. 170.

4.J. N. Postgate, The Land of Assur and the Yoke of Assur, World Archaeology 23:3 (1992), p. 255.

5.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 83.

6.Olmstead, Tiglath-Pileser I and His Wars, p. 186.

7.Leick, Mesopotamia, p. 212.

8.Olmstead, Tiglath-Pileser I and His Wars, p. 180.

9.W. G. Lambert, Studies in Marduk, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 47:1 (1984), p. 4.

10.Postgate, p. 249.

11.J. A. Brinkman, Foreign Relations of Babylonia from 1600 to 625 BC: The Documentary Evidence, American Journal of Archaeology 76:3 (1972), p. 276.

12.Quoted in Leick, Mesopotamia, p. 254.


.

1.J. A. G. Roberts, p. 10.

2.Chien, p. 51.

3.Mencius, Mencius, translated by D. C. Lau (1970), p. 172.

4.Ibid., p. 26.

5.J. A. G. Roberts, p. 13.

6.Cotterell, China, p. 28.


.

1.Tsui Chi, A Short History of Chinese Civilisation (1942), p. 47.

2.Chien, p. 64.

3.Cotterell, China, p. 42.

4.Claudio Cioffi-Revilla and David Lai, War and Politics in Ancient China, 2700 BC to 722 BC: Measurement and Comparative Analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution 39:3 (1995), p. 473.

5.Constance A. Cook, Wealth and the Western Zhou, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 60:2 (1997), pp. 254275.

6.Chien, p. 63.

7.Ibid., p. 62.

8.Li Xueqin, Eastern Zhou and Qin Civilizations (1985), p. 16.

9.Sarah Allan, Drought, Human Sacrifice and the Mandate of Heaven in a Lost Text from the Shang Shu, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 47:3 (1984), p. 533.

10.Edward L. Shaughnessy, Western Zhou History, in The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC, ed. Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy (1999),

p. 311; : Xueqin, p. 16.

11. -; . Shaughnessy, Western Zhou History, p. 314.

12.. : Shaughnessy, Western Zhou History, p. 322.

13.Ibid.

14.Chien, p. 66.

15. : Chien, p. 68.

16.Ibid.


.

1.Kulke and Rothermund, p. 36.

2.Keay, p. 40.

3.Wolpert, p. 37.

4.Keay, pp. 34.

5.Chakravarthi V. Narasimhan, trans., The Mahabharata: An English Version Based on Selected Verses (1998), pp. 1415.

6.Wolpert, p. 30.

7.Narasimhan, p. 34.

8.Kulke and Rothermund, p. 44.

9.Keay, p. 43.

10.Narasimhan, p. 44.

11.Ibid., p. 47.

12.Wolpert, p. 30.

13.Keay, p. 41.

14.Wolpert, p. 36.


.

1.Josh. 1:4, New International Version (hereafter NIV).

2.Pellegrino, p. 256.

3.Josh. 13:24, NIV.

4.Judg. 15:11, NIV.

5.Judg. 16:30, NIV.

6. 1Sam. 8:1118, NIV.

7. 1Sam. 13:1921, NIV.

8. 1Sam. 17:5152, NIV.

9.Dimitri Baramki, Phoenicia and the Phoenicians (1961), p. 25.

10. 1Kings 4:2226, NIV.

11.E. W. Heaton, Solomons New Men: The Emergence of Ancient Israel as a National State (1974),

. 34.

12. 1Kings 10:12, 13, NIV.

13.Robert G. Hoyland, Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam (2001),

p. 13.

14.Ibid., p. 38.

15. 1Kings 9:11, NIV.

16.Homer, The Iliad, Book 9, 460469, translated by Samuel Butler (1898).

17.Clayton, p. 184.

18. 1Kings 14:2527, NIV.


.

1.Shaughnessy, Western Zhou History, p. 324.

2.Constance A. Cook, Wealth and the Western Zhou, p. 283.

3.Shaughnessy, Western Zhou History, p. 326.

4.Chien, p. 70.

5.Fairbank and Goldman, p. 18.

6.Shaugnessy, Western Zhou History, p. 329.

7.Chien, p. 71.

8.The Greater Odes 3.7, Ezra Pound, in trans., The Confucian Odes: The Classic Anthology Defined by Confucius (1954), p. 180

9.Constance A. Cook, Wealth and the Western Zhou, p. 288.

10.Chien, p. 71.

11.Ibid., p. 72.

12.Edward L. Shaughnessy, Historical Perspectives on the Introduction of the Chariot into China, Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 48:1 (1988), p. 223.

13.Edward Kaplan, An Introduction to East Asian Civilizations: The Political History of China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia from an Economic and Social History Perspective (1997), sec. 12.3.

14.Shaughnessy, Western Zhou History, p. 347.

15.Chien, p. 73.

16.Ibid., p. 74.

17.Chi, p. 48.

18.Ibid., pp. 4849.

19.Quoted in Cotterell, China, p. 39.

20.Chi, p. 49.


.

1. 2Sam. 8:56, NIV.

2.Saggs, Assyria, p. 70.

3.Joan Oates, Babylon (1979), p. 106.

4.Saggs, Assyria, p. 72.

5.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, pp. 158, 171.

6.Laessoe, p. 102.

7.Ibid., p. 104.

8.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, pp. 164166.

9. 1Kings 16:2125, NIV.

10.John Rogerson, Chronicle of the Old Testament Kings (1999), p. 102.

11.A. T. Olmstead, History of Assyria (1923), p. 8788.

12.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 147.

13.Ibid., p. 201.

14.Charles F. Pfeiffer, Old Testament History (1973), p. 314.

15.Olmstead, History of Assyria, p. 136.

16. 1Kings 22:7 ff., NIV.

17. 2Kings 10:32, NIV.

18.Michael C. Astour, 841 B.C.: The First Assyrian Invasion of Israel, Journal of the American Oriental Society 91:3 (1971), p. 386.

19.Pfeiffer, p. 318.


.

1.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, pp. 202203, 264.

2.Oates, pp. 109110.

3.Alan R. Millard, Chaldeans, entry in Dictionary of the Ancient Near East, ed. Piotr Bienkowski and Alan Millard (2000), p. 70.

4.Brinkman, Foreign Relations of Babylonia, p. 279.

5.Olmstead, History of Assyria, p. 144.

6.Saggs, Assyria, p. 77.

7.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 254.

8.Olmstead, History of Assyria, p. 156.

9.R. W. Rogers, A History of Babylonia and Assyria, vol. 2 (1971), p. 95.

10.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 259.

11.J. A. Brinkman, A Political History of Post-Kassite Babylon, 1158722 BC (1968), pp. 169170.

12.Brinkman, Foreign Relations of Babylonia, p. 279.

13.Saggs, Assyria, p. 79.

14.Terry Buckley, Aspects of Greek History, 750323 BC: A Source-Based Approach (1996), p. 35.

15.Donald Larimer, The Iliad: An Unpredictable Classic, in Robert Fowler, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Homer (2004), p. 18.

16.Ken Dowden, The Epic Tradition in Greece, in Fowler, p. 190.

17.Robin Osborne, Homers Society, in Fowler, p. 206.

18.Ibid., p. 218.

19.Robert Fowler, Introduction, in Fowler, p. 5.

20.Sarah B. Pomeroy et al., Ancient Greece: A Political, Social, and Cultural History (1999), p. 79.


.

1.Homer, The Iliad, Book 2, translated by Alexander Pope (1713).

2.T. J. Cornell, The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000264 BC) (1995), pp. 3133.

3.David Ridgway, Italy Before the Romans: The Iron Age (1979), pp. 2425.

4.Cornell, pp. 3536.

5.H. H. Scullard, A History of the Roman World, 753 to 146 BC (2003), p. 39.

6.Buckley, p. 36.

7.Judith Swaddling, The Ancient Olympic Games (1999), pp. 1011.

8.Livy, 1.4, from The Early History of Rome, Books IV of The History of Rome from Its Foundation, translated by Aubrey de Selincourt (1971), pp. 3738.

9.Plutarch, Romulus, in Plutarchs lives, vol. 1: The Dryden Translation, p. 27.

10.Livy 1.6, Early History of Rome, p. 39.

11.Ibid., p. 40.

12.Livy, 1.1, Early History of Rome, p. 33.

13.R. M. Ogilvie, Introduction: Livy, in Livy, Early History of Rome, p. 17.

14.Livy, 1.79, Early History of Rome, pp. 4243.

15.Livy, 1.9, Early History of Rome, p. 43.

16.Livy, 1.1314, Early History of Rome, pp. 4849.

17.Buckley, p. 39.

18.Hesiod, Works and Days, 11. 3740, in Theogony, Works and Days, Shield (2004), p. 66.

19.Ibid., 11. 220221, p. 70.

20.Ibid., 11. 230235, p. 71.


.

1.Saggs, Assyria, p. 81.

2. 2Kings 14:2528.

3.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 114.

4.Saggs, Assyria, p. 80.

5.Ibid., p. 83.

6.Ibid.

7.Olmstead, History of Assyria, p. 124.

8.Oates, p. 112.

9.Hayim Tadmor, The Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileserlll, King of Assyria (1994), p. 45.

10.Ibid.

11.Oates, p. 114.

12.Saggs, Assyria, p. 88.

13.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 273.

14.Ernest A. Fredricksmeyer, Alexander, Midas, and the Oracle at Gordium, Classical Philology 56:3 (1961), p. 160.

15.Herodotus, 1.14.

16. 2Kings 1516.

17. , : Oates, p. 114, Brevard S. Childs Isaiah and the Assyrian Crisis (1967), p. 81.

18.Olmstead, History of Assyria, p. 179.

19.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 285.

20.Daniel David Luckenbill, The First Inscription of Shalmaneser V, American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 41:3 (1925), p. 164.

21.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 1, p. 283.


.

1.Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 9.14, in The Works of Josephus (1987), pp. 264265.

2. 2Kings 17:4, NIV.

3.Clayton, p. 189; Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt. History and Meaning in the Time of the Pharaohs (2002), p. 312.

4.Assmann, pp. 317319.

5.Quoted in Assmann, p. 320.

6.Saggs, Assyria, p. 92.

7.Daniel David Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylon, Volume II: Historical Records of Assyria from Sargon to the End (1927), p. 71.

8.Ibid., p. 2; 2Kings 17:6.

9.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 2, p. 2.

10.Ibid., p. 3.

11.A. Leo Oppenheim, The City of Assur in 714 B.C., Journal of Near Eastern Studies 19:2 (1960), pp. 142, 147.

12.Paul Zimansky, Urartian Geography and Sargons Eighth Campaign, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 49:1 (1990), p. 2.

13.Translated in Saggs, Assyria, p. 93.

14.Ibid., p. 94.

15.Oppenheim, The City of Assur in 714 B.C., p. 134.

16.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 2, p. 10.

17.Zimansky, p. 3.

18.Laessoe, p. 113; Hoyland, p. 19.

19.J. A. Brinkman, Elamite Military Aid to Merodach-Baladan, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 24:3 (1965), pp. 161162.

20.Oates, p. 116.

21. : Brinkman, Elamite Military Aid, p. 163.

22.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 2, p. 15.

23.Oates, p. 116.


.

1.Isa. 14:29, NIV.

2.Daniel David Luckenbill, The Annals of Sennacherib (1924), p. 9.

3.Ibid., p. 10.

4.Grant Frame, Rulers of Babylonia from the Second Dynasty of Isin to the End of Assyrian Domination (1157612 BC) (1995), p. 137.

5.Luckenbill, Annals, pp. 1011.

6.Assmann, p. 335.

7.This quote and following from 2 Kings 20:12 ff., NIV.

8.This quote and following from 2 Kings 18:1 ff., NIV.

9.Luckenbill, Annals, p. 10.

10. : Luckenbill, Annals, p. 10.

11.Herodotus, 2.14.

12.The Nebi Yunus Inscription (H4), translated in Luckenbill, Annals, p. 85.

13.Luckenbill, Annals, p. 15.

14.Ibid., p. 16.

15.Ibid., p. 17.

16.Emil G. Kraeling, The Death of Sennacherib, Journal of the American Oriental Society 53:4 (1933), p. 338.


.

1.Xueqin, p. 16.

2.Chien, p. 74.

3.Fairbank and Goldman, p. 49.

4.Xueqin, p. 37.

5.Chien, p. 75.

6.G. W. Ally Rickett, trans., Guanzi, vol. 1 (1985), p. 5.

7.Ibid., p. 6.

8.Chien, p. 75.

9.Ibid.

10.Tso chuan, quoted by Nicola Di Cosmo in Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History (2002), pp. 9899.

11.Chien, p. 76.

12.Ibid., p. 77.


.

1.Isa. 37:38, NIV.

2. . . , : Kraeling, pp. 338340.

3.Olmstead, History of Assyria, p. 343.

4.Frame, p. 164.

5.Olmstead, History of Assyria, p. 351.

6. . . (J. A. Brinkman) : Through a Glass Darkly: Esarhaddons Retrospects on the Downfall of Babylon, Journal of the American Oriental Society 103:1 (1983), p. 39.

7.Brinkman, Through a Glass Darkly, p. 41.

8.Frame, 167.

9.Francis Reynolds, ed., State Archives of Assyria, vol. 18: The Babylonian Correspondence of Esarhaddon and Letters to Assurbanipal and Sin-saru-iskun from Northern and Central Babylonia (2003), p. 4.

10.E. D. Phillips, The Scythian Domination in Western Asia: Its Record in History, Scripture, and Archaeology, WorldArchaeology 4:2 (1972), p. 131.

11. : Ivan Starr, State Archives of Assyria, vol. 4, Queries to the Sungod: Divination and Politics in Sargonid Assyria (1990), Queries 18, 20, 24, and 43, pp. 22, 2425, 30, 48.

12.C. H. Emilie Haspels, The Highlands of Phrygia: Sites and Monuments, vol. 1, The Text (1971).

13.Strabo, The Geography of Strabo in Eight Volumes (1928), 1.3.21.

14.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 2, pp. 516, 530, 533, 546.

15.Starr, Query 84, p. 98.

16. : Laessoe, p. 114.

17.Clayton, p. 193.

18.Shaw, p. 358.

19. : Frame, p. 194.

20.Clayton, p. 195.

21. , : Assmann, pp. 336337, .

22.Herodotus, 2.151; also Redford, Egypt, p. 431.

23.Assmann, p. 337.

24.James Henry Breasted, A History of Egypt (1967), p. 468.

25.Nah. 3:810.

26.Olmstead, History of Assyria, p. 417.

27.Ibid., p. 422.

28. , : Shaw, p. 376.

29.Olmstead, History of Assyria, p. 423.

30.Phillips, The Scythian Domination in Western Asia, p. 132.


.

1.Konstantinos Staikos, The Great Libraries: From Antiquity to the Renaissance (3000 BC to AD 1600) (2000), p. 13.

2.Condensed slightly from Benjamin R. Foster, Before the Muses: An Anthology of Akkadian Literature, vol. 2 (1996), p. 714.

3.Frame, p. 255.

4.Ibid., p. 258.

5. John Malcom Russell, The Writing on the Wall: Studies in the Architectural Context of Late Assyrian Palace Inscriptions (1999), p. 159.

6.Herodotus, 1.98.

7.A. T. Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire (1959), p. 30.

8.Starr, pp. 267270.

9.Saggs, Babylonians, p. 161. 10. Frame, p. 260.

n.Saggs, Babylonians, p. 114.

12.Ezra 4:910, NIV.

13.P. Calmeyer, Greek Historiography and Acheamenid Reliefs, in Achaemenid History II: The Greek Sources, ed. Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and Amelie Kuhrt (1987), p. 11.

14.David Frankel, The Ancient Kingdom of Urartu (1979), p. 19.

15.Phillips, p. 135.

16. 2Kings 23.

17.Herodotus, 1.105.

18.Ibid., 1.106.


.

1.Buckley, p. 37.

2.Phaedo 109b, quoted in Robin Waterfield, Athens (2004), p. 41.

3.Pomeroy et al., p. 92.

4.Herodotus, 4.156157.

5.Ibid., 4.159.

6.Fragment 5, quoted in Buckley, p. 66.

7.Fragment 6, quoted in Buckley, p. 67.

8.Herodotus 6.52.

9.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 2, pp. 291292.

10.Herodotus, 6.57.

11.Lycurgus 15, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, translated by Robin Waterfield (1998), p. 24.

12.Lycurgus 1214, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, pp. 1822.

13.Lycurgus 10, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 18.

14.Herodotus, 7.104.

15.Waterfield, p. 39.

16.Eusebius, Chronicle, in A. Schoene and H. Petermann, trans. Armeniam versionem Latine factam AD libros manuscriptos recensuit H. Petermann (1875), pp. 182183.

17.Waterfield, p. 43.

18.Eusebius, Chronicle, p. 198.

19.Thucydides, 1.125.

20.Thucydides, 1.126.

21.Solon 12, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 55.

22.Athenian Constitution, translated by H. Rackham, 2.13, in Aristotle in 23 Volumes, vol. 20.

23.Solon 17, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 61.

24.Lycurgus 15, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 25.

25.Michael Gagarin, Drakon and Early Athenian Homicide Law (1981), pp. 1921.

26.Solon 1, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 46.

27.Solon 14, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 57.

28.Buckley, pp. 9192.

29.Solon 6, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 50.

30.Herodotus, 1.29.

31.Solon 25, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, pp. 6970.


.

1.Livy, 1.15, Early History of Rome, p. 50.

2.R. M. Ogilvie, Introduction: Livy, in Livy, Early History of Rome, p. 18.

3.Livy, 1.11.2, Early History of Rome, pp. 3436.

4.Livy, 1.15, Early History of Rome, p. 50.

5.Livy, 1.16, Early History of Rome, p. 51.

6.Livy, 1.19, Early History of Rome, p. 54.

7.Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, vol. 1, Books III (1937), 2.62.

8.Livy, 1.33, Early History of Rome, p. 72.

9.Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, vol. 2, Books IIIIV (1939), 3.45.

10.Gary Forsythe, A Critical History of Early Rome: From Prehistory to the First Punic War (2005), pp. 3940.

11.Salvatore Settis, ed., The Land of the Etruscans: From Prehistory to the Middle Ages (1985), p. 30.

12.Jacques Heurgon, Daily Life of the Etruscans (1964), p. 136.

13.Christopher S. Mackay, Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History (2004), p. 12.

14.Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, vol. 2, 3.6162.

15.Ray Kamoo, Ancient and Modern Chaldean History: A Comprehensive Bibliography of Sources (1999), p. XXXI.

16.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 2, p. 417.

17.Kamoo, p. xxxiii; Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 2, p. 419.

18.Herodotus, 1.103.

19.Christopher Johnston, The Fall ofNineveh, Journal of the American Oriental Society 22 (1901), p. 21.

20.Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica, vol. 1 (1956), p. 171; Paul Haupt, Xenophons Account of the Fall of Nineveh, in Journal of the American Oriental Society 28 (1907), p. 101.

21.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 2, p. 420.

22.Nah. 2:610, 3:3, 3:19, NIV.

23.Assmann, p. 338.

24. 2Kings 23:29, NIV.

25. 2Chron. 35:21, NIV.

26.Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol. 2, p. 421.

27. 2Kings 23:3135.

28.Verbrugghe and Wickersham, p. 58.

29.Jer. 46:26, NIV.

30.Donald B. Redford, From Slave to Pharaoh: The Black Experience of Ancient Egypt (2004), p. 146.


.

1.Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews, 10.6.1.

2.Jer. 36.

3.Quoted in Ronald H. Sack, Images of Nebuchadnezzar: The Emergence of a Legend (2004), p. 49. .

4.Herodotus, 2.158.

5.Clayton, p. 196.

6.Herodotus, 4.42; Shaw, p. 381; Redford, Egypt, p. 452.

7.Herodotus, 4.42.

8.Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 10.6.2.

9.Sack, p. 49.

10. 2Kings 24; Rogerson, p. 151.

11.Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 10.7.3.

12.The Wadi-Brisa Inscription, in Sack, p. 16.

13.Verbrugghe and Wickersham, p. 58.

14.Saggs, Babylonians, p. 167.

15. : Diodorus Siculus, pp. 149150.

16.Verbrugghe and Wickersham, p. 59.

17.Saggs, Babylonians, p. 166.

18.Verbrugghe and Wickersham, p. 58.

19.Politics 3.1276, in H. Rackham, trans., Aristotle in 23 Volumes, vol. 21 (1944).

20.Redford, Egypt, p. 461.

21.Redford, From Slave to Pharaoh, p. 146.

22.Clayton, p. 196.

23.Redford, Egypt, p. 463.

24.Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 10.7.3.

25.Jer. 37:710, NIV.

26.Jer. 38:4; also Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 10.7.3.

27.Letter 4, quoted in Rogerson, p. 153.

28. 2Kings 25:46, NIV.

29.Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 10.8.4.

30.Raymond Philip Dougherty, Nabonidus and Bekhazzar: A Study of the Closing Events of the Neo-Babylonian Empire (1929), p. 33; Herodotus, 1.74.

31.Herodotus 1.74.

32.Dan. 4:33, NIV.

33.Quoted in Sack, p. 44.

34.Matthias Henze, The Madness of King Nebuchadnezzar: The Ancient Near Eastern Origins and Early History of Interpretation of Daniel 4 (1999), pp. 9699.


.

1.Herodotus, 1.107.

2. : Herodotus, 1.108119.

3.Herodotus, 1.119.

4. 2Kings 25:2729.

5.The Chronicle of Jerachmeel, quoted in Sack, pp. 5859.

6.Verbrugghe and Wickersham, p. 60.

7.Quoted in Sack, p. 22. , .

8.Leick, The Babylonians, p. 64.

9.Dougherty, p. 24.

10.Quoted in Oates, p. 132.

11.Quoted in Dougherty, pp. 7273.

12.Diodorus Siculus, 2.32.23.

13.Herodotus, 1.123126.

14.Ibid., 1.129130.

15.Ibid., 1.7587.

16.Ibid., 1.8890.

17.Xenophon, The Education of Cyrus (2001), 8.2.1.

18.Ibid., 1.1.2.

19.Ibid., 1.1.5.

20.Ibid., 8.2.89.

21.Ibid., 8.2.1112.

22.Pierre Briant, From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire (2002), pp. 3840.

23.The Verse Account of Nabonidus, quoted in Sack, p. 17.

24. , (Oppenheim), . : Henze, pp. 5960.

25.The Verse Account of Nabonidus, quoted in Sack, p. 18.

26.Gene R. Garthwaite, The Persians (2005), p. 29.

27.Herodotus, 1.189.

28.Xenophon, Education of Cyrus, 8.5.13.

29. , : Dougherty, pp. 176168.

30.Ezra 1:13, NIV.

31.Ezra 3:1213, NIV.


.

1.Herodotus 1.164165.

2.A. Trevor Hodge, Ancient Greek France (1998), p. 19.

3.Barry Cunliffe, The Extraordinary Voyage of Pytheas the Greek: The Man Who Discovered Britain (2002), p. 16.

4.Daithi OHogain, The Celts: A History (2002), p. 1.

5.Ibid., p. 2.

6.Hodge, pp. 5, 190193.

7.Heurgon, p. 13.

8.David Soren et. al., Carthage: Uncovering the Mysteries and Splendors of Ancient Tunisia (1990),

9.Politics, 3.1280, Rackham, Aristotle in 2} Volumes, vol. 21.

10.Heurgon, p. 13.

11.Arnaldo Momigliano, An Interim Report on the Origins of Rome, Journal of Roman Studies 53:12 (1960), pp. 108109.

12.Livy, Early History of Rome, 1.4143.

13.Ibid., 1.47.

14.This quote and the following from Livy, Early History of Rome, 2.10.

15.Thomas Babington Macaulay, Horatius: A Lay Made About the Year of the City CCCLX, 27.

16.Polybius, The Rise of the Roman Empire (1979), 3.22.

17.Livy, Early History of Rome, 5.34.

18.OHogain, p. 2; Bernhard Maier, The Celts: A History from Earliest Times to the Present (2003), pp. 4445.

19.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 2.17.

20.Maier, p. 24; OHogain, p. 7.

21.Cunliffe, pp. 1920.

22.Epitome of the Philippic History, quoted in Maier, p. 38.

23.Mackay, pp. 2628.

24.Livy, Early History of Rome, 2.1719.


.

1.Edgerton, p. 54.

2.Thapar, Early India, p. 152.

3.The Laws of Manu, translated by Georg Buhler (1970), 1.93100.

4.Jan Y. Fenton et al., Religions of Asia (1993), pp. 4648.

5.Thapar, Early India, pp. 146148.

6.Rig Veda 10.90, in Edgerton, p. 68.

7.Wolpert, p. 39.

8.Thapar, Early India, p. 149.

9.Fenton et al., p. 90.

10. : Jataka, 1.54, translated by Henry Clarke Warren in Buddhism in Translation (1896), pp. 5661.

11.Quoted in Michael Carrithers, Buddha: A Very Short Introduction (2001), p. 46.

12.Ibid., p. 62.

13.Karen Armstrong, Buddha (2004), p. 9.

14.Ibid., p. xi.

15.A. L. Basham, The Wonder That Was India (1963), p. 47.

16.Thapar, Early India, p. 152.


.

1.Xueqin, p. 5.

2.Gai Shiqi, Zuozhuan Jishibenmuo, vol. 45 (1979), quoted in Xueqin, p. 170.

3.Chien, p. 77.

4.Cho-yun Hsu, Ancient China in Transition: An Analysis of Social Mobility, 722222 BC (1965), pp. 5960.

5.Jonathan Clements, Confucius: A Biography (2004), pp. 1015. .

6.Clements, pp. 2122.

7.James Legge, trans., The Sacred Books of the East, vol. 27: The Texts of Confucianism, Li Ki, IX (1968), 17.9.6.

8.Ibid., 2.1.7.

9.Ibid., 3.2.1, 12.

10.James Legge, trans., Confucian Analects, The Great Learning, and the Doctrine of the Mean (1971),

7.19.

11.Ibid., 1.1.

12.Ibid., 3.1, 3.

13.Clements, p. 39.

14.Chien, p. 787.

15.Jaroslav Prusek, Chinese Statelets and the Northern Barbarians in the Period 1400300 BC (1971), p. 187.

16.Hsu, p. 69.

17.Sun-Tzu, The Art of War, translated by Lionel Giles (2002), 2.6.

18.Ibid., 3.2.

19.Ibid., 2.24.

20.Ibid., 1.1819.

21.Ibid., 9.24, 26.

22.Quoted in Xueqin, p. 7.


.

1.Herodotus, 1.216.

2.Ibid., 1.214.

3.Ibid., 4.159.

4.Ibid., 2.161.

5.James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt: Historical Documents from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest (19061907), 4.1000, pp. 510511.

6.Herodotus, 2.162.

7.Breasted, Ancient Records, 4.1003, p. 511.

8.Ibid., 4.1005, p. 512.

9.J. M. Cook, The Persian Empire (1983), p. 46.

10.Briant, p. 57.

11.Herodotus, 3.6466.

12.J. M. Cook, Persian Empire, p. 50.

13.Herodotus, 3.72.

14.Maria Brosius, trans, and ed., The Persian Empire from Cyrus II to Artaxerxes I (2000), p. 21.

15.Ibid., p. 48.

16.Ibid., p. 23.

17.J. M. Cook, Persian Empire, p. 53.

18.Brosius, pp. 3233.

19.Ezra 5:39, NIV.

20.Basham, p. 47.

21.Thapar, Early India, p. 154.

22.Keay, p. 67.

23.Ibid.

24.Thapar, Early India, p. 155.

25.Herodotus, 4.44.

26.Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire, p. 145; Herodotus, 3.94 and 4.44; Brosius, p. 40.

27.Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire, p. 145.


.

1.Herodotus, 4.127.

2.Ibid., 4.6465, 7375.

3.Ibid., 4.89.

4.The Persians, in Aeschylus, The Complete Plays, vol. 2, translated by Carl R. Mueller (2002), p. 12

5.Herodotus, 4.126, 131.

6.Briant, p. 144.

7.Herodotus, 5.3.

8.Morkot, p. 65.

9.Peter Green, Alexander of Macedon, 356323 BC: A Historical Biography (1991), pp. 12.

10.Herodotus, 5.18.

11.Waterfield, p. 51.

12.Solon 29, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 73; Athenian Constitution, in Rackhain, Aristotle in 23 Volumes, vol. 20, sees. 1314.

13.Solon 29, in Plutarch, Grer Lives, p. 74.

14.Herodotus, 1.61.

15.Athenian Constitution, in Rackham, Aristotle in 23 Volumes, vol. 20, sec. 15.

16.Ibid., sec. 16.

17.Ibid., sec. 19

18.Lycurgus 16, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 26.

19.Pomeroy et al., p. 152.

20.Herodotus, 5.73.

21.Athenian Constitution, in Rackham, Aristotle in 23 Volumes, vol. 20, sec. 21.

22.Politics, in Rackham, Aristotle in 23 Volumes, vol. 21, 1302b; Buckley, p. 145.

23.Herodotus, 5.97.

24.Ibid., 5.96.

25.Ibid., 5.99.

26.Buckley, pp. 161162.

27.H. T. Wallinga, The Ancient Persian Navy and its Predecessors, in Achaemenid History I: Sources, Structures, and Synthesis, ed. Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg (1987), p. 69.

28.Herodotus, 5.102.

29.Herodotus, 5.103.

30.H. T. Wallinga, in Sancisi-Weerdenburg, p. 69.

31.Herodotus, 6.17.

32.Herodotus, 6.19.

33.Herodotus, 6.112.

34.John Curtis, Ancient Persia (1990), p. 41.

35.Garthwaite, p. 36; Briant, p. 547.

36.H. T. Wallinga, in Sancisi-Weerdenburg, p. 43; Shaw, p. 384.

37.M. Jameson, in Peter Green, Xerxes ofSalamis (Praeger, 1970), p. 98, quoted in Pomeroy et al.,

p. 194.

38.Pomeroy et al., p. 195.

39.Plutarch, Themistocles, sec. 9, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation.

40.Aeschylus, The Complete Plays, pp. 139140.

41.Ibid., p. 140.

42.Ibid., p. 142.

43.Plutarch, Themistocles, sec. 16, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation.

44.Herodotus, 9.84.

45.H. T. Wallinga, in Sancisi-Weerdenburg, p. 74.


.

1.Aeschylus, Persians (1981), pp. 6768.

2.Herodotus, 9.106.

3.Waterfield, p. 72.

4.Thucydides, 1.90.2.

5.Ibid., 1.93.2.

6.Ibid., 1.133134.

7.Plutarch, Themistocles, sees. 1921, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation.

8.Plutarch, Themistocles, sec. 22, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation.

9.Plutarch, Themistocles, sec. 29, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation.

10.Thucydides, 1.138.4; Plutarch, Themistocles, sec. 31, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation.

11.Esther 2:1216.

12.Herodotus, 9.585.

13.Brosius, p. 54.

14.Diodorus Siculus, 11.69.26.

15.J. M. Cook, Persian Empire, p. 127.

16.Thucydides, 1.103.2.

17.Ibid., 1.99.4.

18.Ibid., 1.99.12.

19.Pericles 13, Plutarch, in Greek Lives, p. 156.

20.Thucydides, 1.108.4.

21.Pomeroy et al., p. 251.

22.Thucydides, 1.45.3.

23.Ibid., 1.50.2.

24.Ibid., 2.7.1.

25.Ibid., 2.43.1.

26.Ibid., 2.49.28.

27.Thucydides, 2.4.

28.Thucydides, 2.52.23.

29.J. M. Cook, Persian Empire, p. 129.

30.Alcibiades 13, in Plutarch, Greek Lives.

31.Pomeroy et al., p. 306.

32.Buckley, p. 388.

33.Pomeroy et al., p. 309.

34.Thucydides, 7.51.1.

35.Ibid., 7.84.25, 85.1.

36.Aristophanes, Lysistrata (1912), p. 1.

37.Alcibiades 24, in Plutarch, Greek Lives.

38.Thucydides, 8.78.

39.Alcibiades 35, in Plutarch, Greek Lives.

40.Alcibiades 37, in Plutarch, Greek Lives.

41.Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.2.10, translated by Peter Krentz.

42.Waterfield, p. 209; Xenophon, Hellenica, 2.2.23; Victor Davis Hanson, in Thucydides, p. 549.

43.Waterfield, p. 210.

44.Athenian Constitution, in Rackham, Aristotle in 23 Volumes, vol. 20, p. 35.


.

1.Livy, Early History of Rome, 2.21.

2.Ibid., 2.24.

3.Mackay, p. 34.

4.Livy, Early History of Rome, 2.23.

5.Ibid., 2.32.

6.Ibid., 2.32.

7.Ibid., 3.35.

8.Ibid., 3333.

9. : Oliver J. Thatcher, ed., The Library of Original Sources, vol. 3: The Roman World (1901), pp. 911.

10.Livy, Early History of Rome, 5.21.

11.Ibid., 5.32.

12.Ibid., 5.36.

13.Ibid., 5.38.

14.Ibid., 5.41.

15.Ibid., 5.47.

16.Cunliffe, pp. 2122.

17.Livy, Early History of Rome, 5.55.


.

1.Chien, p. 79.

2.Fairbank and Goldman, p. 54.

3.J. J. L. Duyvendak, trans., in his introduction to The Book of Lord Shang: A Classic of the Chinese School of Law (1928), p. 1.

4.Chien, p. 108.

5.Cotterell, China, p. 53.

6.Shih chi 68, translated in Duyvendak, p. 14.

7.Ibid., p. 15.

8.Ibid., p. 16.

9.Shih chi 68, translated in Cotterell, China, p. 55.

10.Shu-Ching Lee, Agrarianism and Social Upheaval in China, American Journal of Sociology 56:6 (1951), p. 513.

11.The Book of Lord Shang, translated by Duyvendak, p. 180.

12.Shih chi 68, in Duyvendak, p. 16.

13.Shih chi 68, in Cotterell, China, p. 57.

14.Shih chi 69, in Duyvendak, pp. 1617.

15.Ibid., p. 17.

16.Chien, p. 79.

17.Franz Michael, China Through the Ages: History of a Civilization (1986), p. 48.

18.Mencius, I.A.7.

19.Fairbank and Goldman, pp. 5354.

20.Quoted in Michael, pp. 4950.

21.Giving Away a Throne, in The Complete Works ofChuang Tzu, translated by Burton Watson (1968), n.p.

22.Discussion on Making All Things Equal, in Watson, The Complete Works ofChuang Tzu.


.

1.Pomeroy et al., pp. 327328.

2.Scene 1, in Aristophanes, The Birds and Other Plays, translated by David Barrett and Alan H.

Sommerstein (2003), p. 221.

3.Scene 3, Ibid., p. 257.

4.J. M. Cook, Persian Empire, p. 212.

5.Plutarch, Artaxerxes, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation.

6.Xenophon, The Persian Expedition (also known as Anabasis) 1.1, translated by Rex Warner (1972),

p. 56.

7. , . (George Cawkwell) : Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, p. 40.

8.Plutarch, Artaxerxes, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation, p. 646.

9.Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 1.4.

10.Ibid., pp. 8687.

11.Ibid., 4.5.

12.Ibid., 4.7.

13.Plutarch, Artaxerxes, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation, p. 658.

14.Clayton, pp. 201202.

15.Hellenica, 5.19, in The Works of Xenophon, vol. 2, translated by H. G. Dakyns (1892).

16.Ibid., 5.23.

17.Clayton, p. 203.

18.J. M. Cook, Persian Empire, p. 48.

19.Panegyricus 50, in Isocrates, Isocrates II, translated by Terry L. Papillon (2004), p. 40.

20.Panegyricus 166, in Isocrates, p. 68.

21.Green, p. 14.

22.Ibid., p. 22.

23.Justin, The History, 7.5, in William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History, vol. 1 (Allyn and Bacon, 1912).

24.Green, pp. 2324.

25.Alexander 6, in Plutarch, Greek Lives. 16. Alexander 3, in Plutarch, Greek Lives.

27.To Philip 1516, Isocrates, p. 78.

28.Diodorus Siculus, 16.14.

29.Pomeroy et al., p. 389.

30.Justin, History, 8.8.

31.Alexander 10, in Plutarch, Greek Lives.

32. , ( ); . Guy MacLean Rogers, Alexander: The Ambiguity of Greatness (2004), pp. 3134.

33.Alexander n, in Plutarch, Greek Lives.


.

1.Livy, Rome and Ltaly: Books VIX of The History of Rome from Its Foundation, 6.42, translated by Betty Radice (1982), p. 95.

2.Ibid., 6.42.

3.Edward T. Salmon, The Making of Roman Italy (1982), p. 5.

4.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire 3.24.

5.Mary T. Boatwright et al, The Romans: From Village to Empire (2004), p. 79.

6.Livy, Rome and Italy, 7.29, p. 135.

7.Ibid., 7.30, pp. 136137.

8.Ibid., 8.6, pp. 164165.

9.Ibid., 8.1011, pp. 171173.

10.Salmon, p. 40.

11.Livy, Rome and Italy, 8.14, p. 178.

12.Boarwright et al., p. 82.

13.Ibid., p. 84.

14.Diodorus Siculus, 9.9.

15.Soren et al., p. 91.

16.Ibid., pp. 9091, 128130.

17.Diodorus Siculus, 20.67.

18.Soren et al., p. 92.

19.Livy, Rome and Italy, 10.13, 304305.

20.Ibid., 10.28, pp. 327328.


.

1.Green, p. 114.

2.Plutarch, The Life of Alexander the Great, translated by John Dryden (2004), p. 13

3.Green, p. 118; Plutarch, Alexander the Great, p. 13.

4.Diodorus, Siculus, 17.56.

5.Ibid., 17.17.

6.Quintus Curtius Rufus, The History of Alexander ( ), translated by John Yardley (2001), p. 23; Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander, 1.12, translated by Aubrey de Selincourt (1971).

7.Arrian, 1.15, p. 73.

8.Didodorus Siculus, 17.20; Arrian, 1.16.

9.Arrian, 1.17.

10.Rufus, 3.1518, p. 27.

11.Arrian, 2.8.

12.Rufus, 3.12, p. 42.

13.Arrian, 2.15, p. 128.

14.Alexander 29, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 339.

15.G. M. Rogers, pp. 124145.

16.Arrian, 3.23.

17.G. M. Rogers, p. 135.

18.Arrian, 4.9.

19.Ibid., 5.4, p. 259.

20.Ibid., 5.9, p. 267.

21.Alexander 63, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 369.

22.Rufus, 9.19.

23.Plutarch, Alexander the Great, p. 64.

24.Ibid., p. 67.

25.Rufus, 10.3.14.

26.Plutarch, Alexander the Great, p. 71.

27.Rufus, 10.6.13.

28.Plutarch, Alexander the Great, p. 72; also Diodorus Siculus, 18 and 19.

29.Rufus, 10.9.1.

30.Ibid., 10.10.78.

31.Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Charles A. Moore, eds. A Soureebook in Indian Philosophy (1957),

p. 198.

32.Vohra, p. 25.

33.Plutarch, Pyrrhus, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation, p. 520.

34.Plutarch, Demetrius, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation, p. 480.

35.Plutarch, Pyrrhus, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation, p. 537.


.

1.Keay, p. 88.

2.Thapar, Early India, p. 5.

3.Wolpert, p. 57.

4.Keay, p. 90.

5.Ibid., p. 91.

6.Thapar, Early India, p. 180.

7.Translated by Romila Thapar in Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas (1998), p. 255.

8.Ibid., pp. 255256.

9.Ibid., p. 256 and Keay, pp. 9192.

10.Keay, p. 95.

11.Wolpert, p. 64. : Dipavamsa 7, 2831; . : Sacred Books of the East, vol. 10: The Dhammapada (1981).

12.Vohra, p. 25.

13.Ibid.


. ,

1.Charles O. Hucker, Chinas Imperial Past: An Lntroduction to Chinese History and Culture (1975),

p. 40.

2.Ibid., p. 41.

3.Chien, p. 83.

4.Ibid., p. 123.

5.Ibid., p. 130.

6.Ibid., p. 123.

7.Fairbank and Goldman, p. 56.

8.Hucker, pp. 4344.

9.Chien, p. 140.

10.Ibid., p. 147.

11.Sima Qian, The Biography of the Chief Minister of Qin, in Historical Records, translated by Raymond Dawson (1994), p. 31.

12.Sima Qian, The Annals of Qin, in Historical Records, p. 69.

13.Jorge Luis Borges, The Wall and the Books, in Daniel Schwartz, The Great Wall of China (2001), p. 10.

14.Ann Paludan, Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: The Reignby-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China (1998), pp. 1819.

15.Chien, p. 155.

16.Arthur Cotterell, The First Emperor of China (1981), p. 28.

17.Chien, p. 156.

18.Ibid., pp. 161162.

19.Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe, eds., The Cambridge History of China, Volume I: The Chin and Han Empires, 221 BC AD 220 (1986), p. 113.

20.Ibid., p. 117.

21.Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian: Han Dynasty I, translated by Burton Watson (1993), pp. 7475.


.

1.Plutarch, Demetrius, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation, p. 465.

2.Diodorus Siculus, 21.12.

3.Plutarch, Pyrrbus, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. I, The Dryden Translation, pp. 540541, and Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 2.43.

4.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 1.5, p. 45.

5.Ibid., 1.712.

6.Ibid., 1.20, p. 62.

7.J. H. Thiel, A History of Roman Sea-power before the Second Punic War (1954), p. 63.

8.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 1.21, p. 64.

9.Polybius, The Histories, 1.75, translated by Evelyn Shuckburgh (1889), pp. 83, 85.

10.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 1.58, p. 105.

11.Livy, The War With Hannibal: Books XXIXXX of The History of Rome from Its Foundation,

21.41, translated by Aubrey de Selincourt (1965), p. 66.

12.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 1. 63, p. 109.

13.Plutarch, Cleomenes, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation, p. 351.

14.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 5.34, p. 291.

15.Clayton, p. 211.

16.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 5.34, p. 292.

17.Ibid., 15.33, p. 491.

18.Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 12.3.3.

19.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 3.11, p. 189.

20.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 2.1, pp. 1112.

21.Soren et al., p. 102.

22.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 3.2021.

23.Livy, The War with Hannibal, 21.1, p. 23.

24.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 3.33, p. 209.

25.Ibid., 3.49.

26.Livy, The War with Hannibal, 21.32, p. 56.

27.Ibid., 21.47, p. 72.

28.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 3.68, p. 237.

29.Livy, The War with Hannibal, 11.57, p. 83.

30.Ibid., 22.7, p. 102.

31.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 3.90, p. 257.

32.Ibid., 3.118, p. 275.

33.Livy, The War With Hannibal, 27.48, p. 493.

34.Ibid., 27.51.

35.Ibid., 30.20, p. 644.

36.Ibid., 30.36, p. 664.

37.Leonard Cottrell, Hannibal: Enemy of Rome (1992), p. 242.


.

1.Livy, The Dawn of the Roman Empire: Books 3140 [of The History of Rome from Its Foundation],

33.19, translated by J. C. Yardley (2000), pp. 112113.

2.Polybius, Rise of the Roman Empire, 18.45, p. 514.

3.Ibid., 18.46, p. 516.

4.Ibid., 3.11, p. 189.

5.Livy, Dawn of the Roman Empire, 36.17, p. 268.

6.Plutarch, Flamininus, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation, p. 515.

7. , , - -.

8.Polybius, Histories, 23.7.

9.Livy, Dawn of the Roman Empire, 40.5, p. 486.

10.Polybius, Histories, 27.1.

11.Livy, The History of Rome, vol. 6, translated by E. Roberts (1912), 42.36.

12.Ibid., 42.26.

13.Ibid., 45.12.

14.Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 1.1, in The Works of Josephus, p. 546.

15.John Bright, A History of Israel (1974), pp. 424425.

16.Ibid., p. 424.

17. 2Mace. 6:10, Revised Standard Version.

18. 2Mace. 8:1, 79.

19.Josephus, Wars of the Jews, 1.4.

20.Ibid.

21.A. N. Sherwin-White, The Roman Citizenship (1973), p. 42.


.

1.Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian, p. 77, 84.

2.Di Cosmo, Ancient China and Its Enemies, p. 157.

3.Ibid., p. 165.

4.Burton Watson, trans., Records of the Grand Historian of China: Translated from the Shih chi of Ssuma Chien, vol. 2 (1968), p. 129.

5.Twitchett and Loewe, p. 384.

6.Ibid., p. 386.

7.Sima Qian, Shih chi 9: The Basic Annals of the Empress Lu, in Records of the Grand Historian, p. 267.

8.Sima Qian, Records of the Grand Historian, p. 269.

9.Ibid., p. 270.

10.Ibid., pp. 273274.

11.Ibid., p. 284.

12.Sima Qian, Shih chi 123, in Watson, Records, vol. 2, p. 264.

13.Hucker, pp. 123125.

14.Hucker, p. 128.

15.Sima Qian, Shih chi 123, in Watson, Records, vol. 2, p. 264.

16.Ibid., p. 269.

17.T. W. Rhys Davids, trans., The Questions of King Milinda (1963), Book 1, p. 7.

18.Ibid., Book 7, p. 374.

19.Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, 13.14.

20.Sima Qian, Shih chi 123, Watson, Records, vol. 2, p. 268.

21.Plutarch, Sylla, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation, p. 610.

22.Shih chi 123, in Watson, Records, vol. 2, p. 276.


.

1.Soren et al., p. 115.

2.Livy, The History of Rome, 6.42.23.

3.Plutarch, Marcus Cato, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation, p. 478.

4.Ibid., p. 478.

5.Philip Matyszak, Chronicle of the Roman Republic (2003), p. 120.

6.Plutarch, Marcus Cato, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 1, The Dryden Translation, p. 479.

7.Polybius, Histories, 38.311.

8.Ibid. 39, p. 530.

9.M. I. Finley, Ancient Slavery and Modern Ideology (1980), p. 97.

10.Diodorus Siculus, 34.14.

11.Ibid., 34.16.

12.Ibid., 34.48.

13.Finley Hooper, Roman Realities (1979), p. 155.

14.Appian, The Civil Wars, 1.1, translated by Oliver J. Thatcher in The Library of Original Sources, vol. 3: The Roman World (1901).

15.Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation, pp. 357358.

16.Ibid., p. 361.

17.Ibid., p. 369.

18.Appian, Civil Wars, 1.2.

19.Diodorus Siculus, 34.21.

20.Ibid., 34.23.

21.Plutarch, Caius Gracchus, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation, pp. 381383.


.

1.The Jugurthine War 41, in Sallust, The Jugurthine War/The Conspiracy of Cataline, translated by

S. A. Handford (1963), p. 77.

2.The Jugurthine War 8, in Sallust, p. 41.

3.The Jugurthine War 14, in Sallust, p. 47.

4.The Jugurthine War 28, in Sallust, p. 64.

5.The Jugurthine War 37, in Sallust, p. 73.

6.Marius 28, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 148.

7.Marius 32 in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 152.

8.Cicero, On the Commonwealth, 3.41, in On the Commonwealth and On the Laws, translated and edited by James E. G. Zetzel (1999), p. 74.

9.Justin 38.4.13, quoted in Salmon, p. 128.

10.Salmon, p. 129.

11.Marius 33 in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 153.

12.Sulla 6 in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 179.

13.Marius 34 in Plutarch, Greek Lives, pp. 153154.

14.Marius 35 in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 154.

15.Sulla 9, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 185.

16.Twitchett and Loewe, p. 410.

17.Shi chi iop, in Watson, Records, vol. II, pp. 142143.

18.Shi chi 123, in Watson, Records, vol. 2, p. 282.

19.Ibid., 123, p. 284.

20.Han shu 96, quoted in Twitchett and Loewe, p. 410.

21.Marius 43, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 164.

22.Sulla 22 in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 199.

23.Sulla 30, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 208.

24.Sulla 31, in Plutarch, Greek Lives, p. 210.

25.Hooper, p. 215.

26.Ibid., p. 223.


.

1.Carlin A. Barton, The Scandal of the Arena, Representations 27 (1989), p. 2.

2.Tertullian, De spectaculis 22, in Barton, p. 1.

3.Crassus 8, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic: Six Lives by Plutarch, translated by Rex Warner (1972), p. 122.

4.Crassus 9, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, p. 123.

5.Appian, Civil Wars, 1.118.

6.Crassus 9, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, p. 124.

7.Appian, Civil Wars, 1.119.

8.Crassus n, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, p. 127.

9.Appian, Civil Wars, 1.121.

10.Crassus 11, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, p. 127.

11.Crassus 12, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, p. 128.

12.Hooper, p. 226.

13.Ibid., p. 121.

14.Ibid., p. 120.

15.Pompey 48 and Caesar 14, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, pp. 207, 257.

16.Caesar, The Conquest of Gaul, 2.35, translated by S. A. Handford, revised by Jane F. Gardner (1982), p. 73.

17.Caesar 20, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, p. 263.

18.Caesar 21, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, p. 265.

19.Acton Griscom, The Historia Regum Britannia of Geoffrey of Monmouth (1929), p. 221.

20.Caesar, Conquest of Gaul, 5.14, p. in.

21.Ibid., 4.36, p. 103.

22.Plutarch, quoted in Hooper, p. 273.

23.Caesar 28, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, p. 271.

24.Caesar 3233, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, p. 276.

25.Caesar 35, in Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, p. 279.

26.Plutarch, Antony, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation, p. 487.

27.Clayton, p. 216.

28.Pompey 7980, Plutarch, Fall of the Roman Republic, pp. 240241.

29.Harriet I. Flower, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Roman Republic (2004), p. 328.

30.Nicolaus of Damascus, Life of Augustus, translated by Clayton M. Hall (1923).

31.Suetonius, The Deified Julius Caesar 82, in Lives of the Caesars, translated by Catharine Edwards (2000), p. 39.


.

1.Suetonius, The Deified Julius Caesar 83, in Lives of the Caesars, p. 39.

2.Plutarch, Marcus Brutus, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation, p. 586.

3.Ibid., p. 587.

4.Plutarch, Antony, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation, pp. 490491.

5.Ibid., p. 491.

6.Ibid., p. 492.

7.Suetonius, The Deified Augustus 16, in Lives of the Caesars, p. 49.

8.Plutarch, Antony, in Plutarchs Lives, vol. 2, The Dryden Translation, p. 496.

9.Suetonius, The Deified Augustus 16, in Lives of the Caesars, p. 50.

10.Hooper, p. 305.

11.Chris Scarre, Chronicle of the Roman Emperors (1995), p. 18.

12.Hooper, p. 331.

13.Mackay, p. 184.

14.Hooper, pp. 332333; Mackay, p. 185.

15.Res Gestae, II.3841, 58, in The Monumentum Ancyranum, translated by E. G. Hardy (1923).

16.Ibid., H.7480, 8587.

17.Mackay, p. 185.

18.Suetonius, The Deified Augustus 79, in Lives of the Caesars, p. 84.

19.Tacitus, Annals of Imperial Rome, 1.1.

20.Garthwaite, p. 80.

21.Suetonius, Augustus 31, in The New Testament Background: Selected Documents, edited by C.

K. Barrett, p. 5.

22.Hooper, p. 334.

23.Suetonius, Tiberius, in Lives of the Caesars, p. 131.

24.Garthwaite, p. 80.

25.Suetonius, The Deified Augustus 98, in Lives of the Caesars, p. 95.


.

1.Twitchett and Loewe, p. 225.

2.Clyde Bailey Sargent, trans. Wang Mang: A Translation of the Official Account of His Rise to Power (1977), p. 55.

3.Ibid., p. 178.

4.Hucker, p. 129.

5. , , . : J. A. G. Roberts, p. 57.

6.J. A. G. Roberts, p. 57.

7.Paludan, p. 45.

8.J. A. G. Roberts, p. 59.

9.Michael, p. 82. 10. Fenton, p. 141.


.

1.Suetonius, Tiberius 25, in Lives of the Caesars, p. 111.

2.Ibid.

3.Suetonius, Tiberius 43, in Lives of the Caesars, p. 119.

4.Suetonius, Tiberius 75, in Lives of the Caesars, p. 134.

5.Acts of Thomas, 2.4.

6.Ibid., 1.16.

7.Rom. 6:814, NIV.

8.Josephus, Wars of the Jews, II.184203.

9.Tacitus, Annals of Imperial Rome, 12.62, 280.

10.I. A. Richmond, Roman Britain (1978), p. 30.

11.Ibid., p. 33.

12.Dio Cassius, Roman History (1916), 62.161.

13.Tacitus, Annals of Imperial Rome, 15.44.

14.Sulpicius Severus, The Sacred History of Sulpicius Severus, in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, vol. 11, edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace (1974), book 2, chapter 29.

15.Suetonius, Nero 57, in Lives of the Caesars, p. 227.

16.Suetonius, Galba, in Lives of the Caesars, pp. 236237.

17.Hooper, p. 393.


.

1.Hooper, p. 403.

2.Pliny, Letter 6.20 in The Letters of the Younger Pliny (1963).

3.De Vita Caesarum: Domitianus, in Suetonius, edited by J. C. Rolfe (1914), vol. 2, 339385.

4.Domitian 13, in Suetonius, Lives of the Caesars, sec. 13, p. 289.

5.Tacitus, Life of Cnaeus Julius Agricola, in Complete Works of Tacitus, translated by Alfred John Church and William Jackson Brodribb (1964), pp. 707708.

6.Scarre, p. 83.

7.Scarre, p. 88.

8.Trajan, in Anthony Birley, Lives of the Later Caesars (1976), p. 44.

9.Epictetus, Discourses 4, in Discourses, Books 3 and 4, translated by P. E. Matheson (2004),

I. 128131.

10.Dio Cassius, Roman History, p. lxix.

11.Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, translated by A. C. McGiffert, 1890.

12.Ibid.


.

1.J. A. G. Roberts, p. 60.

2.Hucker, p. 131.

3.J. A. G. Roberts, p. 60.

4.Fairbank and Goldman, p. 60.

5.Hucker, p. 131.

6.Michael, p. 84.

7.Ibid.


.

1.Scarre, p. 110.

2.Marcus Antoninus 2, in Birley, p. 110.

3.Birley, Marcus Antoninus 7, in Birley, p. 115.

4.Birley, Marcus Antoninus 12, in Birley, p. 122.

5.Birley, Marcus Antoninus 17, in Birley, p. 125.

6.Marcus Aurelius, The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, translated by George Long (1909), 6.2.

7.Ibid., 30.

8.Marcus Antoninus 28, in Birley, p. 136.

9.Scarre, p. 122.

10.Commodus 9, in Birley, p. 170.

11.Commodus 16, in Birley, p. 175.

12.Rafe de Crespigny, trans., To Establish Peace, vol. 1 (1996), p. xi.

13.Ibid., p. 17.

14.Michael, p. 133; Paludan, p. 55.

15.de Crespigny, vol. 1, p. xxxviii.

16.Ibid., vol. 2, p. 396.

17.Hucker, p. 133.

18.Caracallus 2, in Birley, p. 251.

19.Caracallus 4, in Birley, p. 253.

20.Darab Dastur Peshotan Sanjana. The Karname i Artakhshir i Papakan, Being the Oldest Surviving Records of the Zoroastrian Emperor Ardashir Babakan, the Founder of the Sasanian Dynasty in Iran (1896), 1.6.

21.Scarre, p. 147.

22.Birley, Heliogabalus 5, in Birley, p. 293.


.

1.al-Masudi, El Masudis Encyclopedia, Entitled Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, Book 2 (1841).

2.Curris, p. 61.

3.Yasna 12: The Zoroastrian Creed, translated by Joseph H. Peterson (electronic text at www. , 1997), sections 1, 3, 9.

4.Jordanes, The Origin, and Deeds of the Goths, translated by Charles C. Mierow (1908) 1.9

5.Jordanes, 2.20.

6.Lactantius, Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died, in The Anti-Nicene Fathers, vol 7, Fathers of the Third and Fourth Centuries, edited by Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson (1974)

7.Ibid.

8.Eutropius, Abridgement of Roman History, translated by John Selby Watson (Bohn, 1853) 9.13.

9.Ibid., 9.14.

10.Scarre, p. 193.

11.Eusebius, The Oration of the Emperor Constantine, 24, in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers Second Series, Vol. I, edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace (1974).

12.Eutropius, 9.18.

13.Ibid., 9.18.

14.Ibid., 9.20.

15.Lactantius, On the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died

16.Ibid.

17.Eutropius, 9.23.

18.Ibid., 9.27.

19.Eusebius, Life of Constantine, in Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers, Second Series, vol. I, edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace (1974), 26.

20.Ibid., 28, 29.

21.Ibid., 38.


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